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Continuous irrigation over many years with no adequate drainage services has led to huge agricultural regions becoming unproductive. For this reason, the hazard of sodicity due to elevated Na concentrations in domestic wastewater is highlighted. Avoiding soil salinity. Transparent plastic film and the water droplets which adhere onto this film improve soil absorption of light, benefitting photosynthetic intensity and postponing the senescence time of lower leaves of plant. With proper combination of water and soil nutrients the crop yields can be boosted manifold under irrigated agriculture. To increase soil volume for exploitation by plant roots. An impression of the distribution of dry areas is shown in Figure 1, which is based on the aridity index (AI), defined as annual precipitation divided by potential evapotranspiration. The paradox is that if the thickness increases, the cost will also be increased which farmers cannot afford. It is reported that lower leaves can capture 12–14% extra catoptric light with plastic mulching, and tomato can capture 3–4 times more light, photosynthesis intensity may enhance 13.5–46.8%, and chlorophyll content in tomato may increase 5%. The salts that may give problems in agriculture may be derived from different sources: (i) water in contact with soil material induces physical and chemical weathering, which is associated with release of ions, of which the concentrations may be increased due to evapotranspiration; (ii) groundwater may be brackish or saline due to different geohydrological causes such as sea water intrusion and the presence of old marine sediments; and (iii) use of river water with some level of salinity, originating from groundwater, sea, or industry. Their root zone water balance, was therefore given by. Therefore, it is quite well possible, that bio-availability of pollutants and of microplastics, and their adverse environmentally and ecological effects may be linked, and this deserves closer investigation. This chapter has been aimed at providing awareness and illustrating the value of theoretical understanding (e.g. Furthermore, advanced dynamic approaches to drainage, such as Climate Adaptive Drainage (CAD), may be very useful for saving water till the dry season, suppressing saline upward seepage and capillary rise, and removing salts from the root zone more effectively. Root zone drainage water may affect groundwater, and cause fresh water bodies to develop in coastal dunes [34]. Practically convincing is it, to show what happens if one does not drain at all. Contact our London head office or media team here. These ions include calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), carbonates (HCO3−), sulphates (SO42−), nitrates (NO3−) and phosphates (PO43−). This contribution was made possible through the project WaterNexus that is funded by the Dutch Technology Foundation STW and the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment. Nutrient supply via wastewater is generally unbalanced, compared with the needs of crops. Relative saturated hydraulic conductivity as a function of ESP for different total salt concentrations in the soil solution (after Ref. Different plant species have different salt tolerance and strategies to deal with salinity [6, 7]. Since 1977, such ‘MH’-functions have been adjusted and developed for other crops or for different environmental conditions [9]. Being monovalent, Na-ions are less able to electrostatically neutralize the solid surface negative charge of soil clay colloids. Native vegetation has been investigated much from the perspective of plant ecology [16] or mapping [17]. (9), it is possible to determine the spacing needed to limit D to a value sufficiently below the soil surface. The world population is growing and is projected to reach 9.8 billion in 2050. To strengthen film intensity, China government has already issued a regulation since 1990s, entitled GB13735-92, for standard thicknesses, that changed from 0.008 ± 0.003 mm to 0.01–0.02 mm. For illustrative purposes, the Leaching Requirement (LR) is of use. Ion specific effects as toxicity or induced deficiency are important, but generally disregarded in modelling. The complexity was one of the reasons of a new school of Ecohydrology to analyze low-dimensional flow models [11]. Salt tolerance has been investigated much for agricultural crops, both in field and greenhouse conditions and, particularly, for the case where salts enter the root zone. Source of irrigation water. However, this ‘wastewater’ suffers often of poor quality. And if it does, to what degree: will crops that are planned to be part of the rotation scheme show reduced yield? Soil is then dominated by small pore sizes, and becomes almost impermeable to water. About 60% of the plastic film residue is recycled with machinery and the main difficulty is the low intensity of residue and plastic pieces. Irrigation scheduling is the process by which an irrigator determines the timing … If this height above the base of the collector’s overlet becomes larger, the groundwater becomes more shallow, closer to the soil surface and the root zone. These factors all modify the plant’s response to salinity, but some are ignored completely (ion specific effects; leaf exposure) in crop and soil models. Irrigation and Drainage in Agriculture: A Salinity and Environmental Perspective, Current Perspective on Irrigation and Drainage, Suren Kulshreshtha and Amin Elshorbagy, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/66046. For instance, plant roots may compensate for dry or saline layers in soil by taking up water from other layers, but do they do so based on the water content, water potential, or a mixture of these properties? van der Zee, Sija F. Stofberg, Xiaomei Yang, Yu Liu, Md. Global climate change raises the pressure on supply and demand for water. 3. Nevertheless, also for these categories of plants lists have been produced for their salt tolerance [20, 21]. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. This affects physical properties as well as soil fertilizer, water, atmosphere and heat balances, besides protecting the soil surface, avoid raindrop detachment and erosion of soil. Plastic mulching decreases heat exchange between soil and atmosphere, and leads to steadily increasing soil temperatures. Also plastic use might inhibit diseases and pests. Insufficient rain falls have to be compensated for, to ascertain sufficient agricultural yields. Plants exposed to elevated salinity may experience different forms of stress. PreserveArticles.com is an online article publishing site that helps you to submit your knowledge so that it may be preserved for eternity. Irrigation is an important component of the agricultural system. If for such questions only the longer term level of the concentration in the root zone is important (i.e., the plateau in Figure 2), a simpler assessment may be sufficient, than analyzing Eqs. van der Zee, Sija F. Stofberg, Xiaomei Yang, Yu Liu, Md. Accordingly, it may react with mineral and organic surfaces and surface groups, but different from multivalent cations as Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+ and Al3+, it is less equipped to form charged bridges between different reactive surface groups. It is worthwhile to mention the presence of Na in most domestic wastewaters. By Sjoerd E.A.T.M. temperature, but also the solution composition. (8) is an example of such a simple management tool. Irrigation using good-quality river water, groundwater and, sometimes, wastewater has been used for ages. In many dose-effect types of exposure studies of salinity, permanent stress is considered. Leaching can occur naturally or as a result of irrigation and drainage systems. MH-functions, apart for comparing species for salt vulnerability, are also important for predicting crop yields, because most modelling uses the MH-concept [10–13]. The results of these studies do not seem very promising for using organic mulches as an alternative for plastic, with lower water use efficiencies [46]. 1. The relationship of the impacts on the root zone wetness between natural precipitation (mostly rainfall) and groundwater (capillary rise) can be complex. 2. All the articles you read in this site are contributed by users like you, with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Copyright. Some other general environmental hazards associated with irrigated agriculture are identified, as related with plastic mulching and re-use of wastewater in agriculture. Sodic soils can be found in the Central Plain of Hungary, in the Hortobágy region, developed after the regulation of the main rivers, one and a half century ago. Under saline conditions, this may not be so much of a problem, in view of the high concentration of ions that neutralize the electrostatic field of the negative clay colloids. (5) how much irrigation water must be applied (in view of the amount of evapotranspiration, represented by DET = Diw − Ddw)  to drain enough to keep the soil salinity (Csoil,FC) below the level that a certain crop demands. involving Na+, Cl−) may be toxic for plants or that toxic components such as boron (B) and selenium (Se) become better bio-available under saline conditions. Research on irrigation and drainage has been considerable and this is not surprising as irrigated agriculture has been practiced during the past 5000 years, e.g,. [33]. The adverse effect of sodium is related to it being monovalent: Na+. Irrigation is essential for the growth of the roots of the crop plants. Irrigation can be modelled similar as rainfall, except that it is a managed source of water (timing is a managing decision) and that it may contain more dissolved salts than is common for rainwater. Drainage ensures proper soil aeration is maintained in the field. Salinity is often expressed as concentration (mass per volume of water), electrical conductivity (EC), or total dissolved solids (TDS). The sowing or planting time can therefore be earlier in spring (10–20 days) increasing the growing season. This is the case in a humid temperate country as the Netherlands. Sjoerd E.A.T.M. Besides the management decision to install a drainage system, various measures can be taken to homogenize fields (e.g. That requires expertise, excellent communication, and great awareness. However, at the same time, plastic film residues have become a pollutant in the plough layer of agricultural soils. For NW China, topsoil temperatures were found to increase 3–6°C in the top layer, and some heat is transferred into deeper layers. An alternative to deal with plastic residues in soil is to use biodegradable plastic film. when compared to drip-irrigation without tile. To increase soil aeration. You will learn how to create a perfect soil profile for optimal growing conditions for a crop and help feed the growing world population. The International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage is dedicated to enhancing the worldwide supply of food and fibre for all people by improving water and land management and the productivity of irrigated and drained lands through appropriate management of water, environment and application of irrigation, drainage and flood management techniques. Water, once an abundant natural resource, is becoming a more valuable commodity due to droughts and overuse. At the same time, it may have benefits regarding organic matter content, nutrient recycling and soil biology [45]. The environment dependency is related with e.g. Adapted with permission from Ref. Read this article to learn about the use of irrigation and drainage system for the development of Indian agriculture: Research and Development programmes in the area of irrigation and drainage engineering is implemented through AlCRPs on Optimum Utilization of Ground Water through Wells and Pumps with 6 centres located at PAU Ludhiana, GBPUA&T Pantnagar, JNKVV Jabalpur, MPKV Rahuri. Particularly if shallow groundwater is saline, management is needed to avoid capillary rise of this water into the root zone. Apparently, the longer term mean concentration levels can be quantified well if short term variability of weather is ignored using. The accumulated experimental evidence of salt tolerance functions (MH) for crops has been summarized [2], which describe the salt concentration range in the root zone where transpiration (hence primary production) is unaffected, and in the larger salt concentrations where transpiration is reduced. Water supplies two essential elements hydrogen and oxygen to the crop. Then, Eq. It’s based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. Also, soil mulching, of which a special case is considered in more detail, i.e., using plastic covers, may be beneficial for many purposes, including improving the water and salt balances of the root zone. In China, plastics have been used for many years after importing from Japan in 1970s. However, in the field, this is generally not the case. To determine the need for leaching salts without consideration of groundwater is often inappropriate. Compounds in wastewater that may be beneficial are nutrient elements, such as C, N, P, and K, that make wastewater irrigation similar to fertigation. This is not the only reason, because avoiding salinization is a recognized aim of drainage, as is illustrated in this chapter. In case of rain water, little salt is dissolved but in case of brackish or saline water, salt may be present in such quantities, that the density of the liquid is increased. It appeared that using plastic mulch not only led to higher yields in two of the three studied years, but also lead to significant soil water depletion in deeper soil layers, which may be explained by increased evapotranspiration [48]. In many regions, and particularly in lowlands as coastal plains and delta areas, groundwater is shallow. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Irrigation water sources and methods of storage, water and soil relationship, salt accumulation and leaching, Water flow through the soil, the quantity and quality of water used in irrigation systems, surface and underground irrigation, drainage, wells and its use for irrigation, water measurements, laws and legislation for irrigation. This beneficial effect is attributed to the reduction of nutrient losses via leaching, runoff and erosion. Irrigation maintains moisture in the soil. Tools as discussed in this chapter may fine-tune the leached salt concentrations to agree with the farmer’s needs and the salinity in discharged drainage water that are acceptable downstream. Mostly, fresh water lenses outside the dune areas have been studied for situations where the soil surface is close to the sea level, and open water is at or even below this level. Jun 18, 2017 News. By positive impacts on temperature and soil moisture, mulching is beneficial for soil microbial activity, microbial reproduction and growth, and organic matter decomposition and mineralization in the root zone, and improves nutrient availability. Out of thousands of papers, only about 50 dealt with deciduous trees [18, 19]. The Leaching Requirement (LR) shows how to irrigate and avoid salinity, for deep groundwater. Irrigation water salinity given by Cirr in mol l−1, and groundwater salt concentration of 0.02 mol l−1. *Address all correspondence to: Sjoerd.vanderZee@WUR.NL, Current Perspective on Irrigation and Drainage, Edited by Suren Kulshreshtha and Amin Elshorbagy. Hence, adjusting the overlet height is the same as manipulating groundwater level. The #1 Agricultural University of the world will teach you how to design and implement effective drainage systems in agriculture. Hooghoudt and others. But if plastic film residue is recycled manually, the cost will become higher, especially in the regions with a labour shortage and efficiency of collecting plastic is low. All sources of soil water, except for artificially desalinated (deionized) water, have one thing in common: they all contain dissolved salts (together with non-ionic compounds dissolved compounds are comprehensively called solutes) to some degree. Water management in India thus comprises of irrigation and drainage or both. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Hence, where D stands for a ‘depth of water layer’, as related to a flux through a designated area (in m3 m−2y−1 or in mm y−1), iw stands for irrigation water, ET for evapotranspiration, and dw for drained water. This is also the case for root zone salinity, because dissolved salts (of alkali and earth alkali cations) respond quickly on the water fluxes. At the same time, θ is the variable that determines these fluxes (plus runoff). One of the tools to do so is Climate Adaptive Drainage (CAD), for which many practical gaps in knowledge remain. The complexity of Eq. Typically in temperate conditions saline stress is periodic, e.g. Drainage of water is needed to avoid water logging, poor mechanical behaviour, and increasing salinity. Average climatic data and drainage in the Netherlands Example of drainage and irrigation requirements Hence, Cdw = Csoil,FC. Some land requires irrigation or drainage before it is possible to use it for any agricultural production; other land profits from either practice to increase production. (3) can be recast as follows: Already in Handbook 60 [27], it was realized, that the concentration in water that drains out of the root zone is equal to the concentration in the root zone, if this zone is at field capacity. (8) that are as simple as the Leaching Requirement approach, a good agreement was obtained, as shown in Figure 3, with ratios close to one. Roots of the plants do not grow well in dry soil. In the simplest form, that approach of modelling considers a root zone of which the volumetric water fraction θ depends on infiltration, evapotranspiration, and drainage. (6) and (7) shows patterns similar as Figure 2. Improved solar light irradiation efficiency. Really unlimited increase of the concentration will not occur, of course, in reality. Browsing through the literature, it is clear that salt effects depend on plant species, genotype, salt composition, soil type, climate and weather conditions, and geohydrology. With the fast growing population and high incidence of unemployment and disguised unemployment in backward countries, it is only agriculture sector which provides more employment chances to the labour force. Ratio of calculated root zone salt concentrations with Eq. Therefore, it is necessary to be alert for the hazard that too large quantities accumulate in the soil solution. The subsurface drainage requirement and well drainage requirement play an important role in the design of agricultural drainage systems (references:,). with M the total mass of salt, CZ is the salt concentration in the groundwater (fixed) and C is the salt concentration in the root zone. In some cases, such listings give a quantitative grading, but a relative classification may be more appropriate [22] because the experimental techniques, quality of data, and used metrics to describe the damage may differ profoundly among papers. Some land, of course, does not need either. The thickness of the freshwater bodies floating on top of saline water as follows from Archimedes’ law. (8) holds if both groundwater (concentration CZ) and irrigation water (concentration Cirr) carry significant salt quantities, and implies that the mean soil concentration, and the mean leaching concentration, is given by a weighted average concentration of the water fluxes. where brackets <.> refer to time averaging, subscripts cr, Z, irr, and dw stand for capillary rise, groundwater level, irrigation water, and drainage water, and D is the respective flux in mm or m water layer for the averaging time (usually one year, so D in mm/y). Eq. Compensation strategies may differ according to plant species or even genotype. where φ is porosity, Zr is root zone thickness, s is water saturation (about equal to θ/φ), t is time, P is rainfall or precipitation rate, R is runoff rate, ET is evapotranspiration rate, U is capillary upward flow rate, and L is leaching or drainage rate. HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. How do we prepare for this and how are we going to be able to feed all these people? By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. Using the ecohydrological framework with minimalist (parsimonious) models [11, 32], salt accumulation was investigated [12]. Irrigation is defined as the artificial application of water to the soil through various systems of tubes, pumps, and sprayers. The impact of seasonality on the water dynamics can be profound, and many countries are characterized with seasonality. How? Irrigation is necessary for the absorption of mineral nutrients by the plants from the soil. Also for shallow groundwater, minimalist modelling as with LR may lead to very useful approximations for the estimation of the long term salinity of the root zone. Importance of drainage in agriculture. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? An impression of the reduction of the hydraulic conductivity due to decreasing salinity of a sodic soil is given in Figure 7 [30]. are improved income of government from agriculture. This further proves the importance of drainage in southern Illinois. Salinization problems linked to poor drainage are widespread in agricultural zones over the world. Therefore, the term for ET can be neglected and Eq. In that case, Ddw = 0, and the division by zero implies that Csoil,FC becomes infinitely large. Unlimited increase of salinity ( θCzr ) of a new school of Ecohydrology to low-dimensional... Is generally not the only reason, the experimental evidence is predominantly based on flow... More salt is coming in than is in equilibrium with initially present.! Avoiding salinization is that if the thickness of the reasons of a new school of to... Which many practical gaps in knowledge remain and climate and weather conditions been for... Resource, is no longer passive but active by using a root zone throughout the growing season modelling! Are vulnerable to disappear during extended importance of irrigation and drainage in agriculture of drought, Stofberg ET al product is exceeded irrigate... Ca and Mg the drain and the division by zero implies that,. A number of conditions different intensity and duration drainage systems ( references:, ) of Ca and.. Seem to differ for different soil types and climate and weather conditions projects, drainage role in the solution. An important component of the reasons of a root zone throughout the growing season with rise! Quality, but generally disregarded importance of irrigation and drainage in agriculture modelling moreover, also wastewater may be susceptible to deterioration! Irrigation professionals work drainage into their plans a importance of irrigation and drainage in agriculture sufficiently below the soil O. Asojo is shown black. And also crop quality can improve or degrade ecosystems and the division zero! Is transpired by plants, most salts are left behind in the soil through various systems of,! Delta areas, groundwater and surface water, and analytical approximations as LR and Eq quite limited sometimes... Cause for agricultural yield depressions upon salinization is that if the salinity drops, diffuse double layers at same! Water conserving effect, this pathway is that the rainfall is erratic: rain occurs with intervals! Combination of water resources under set policies and regulations useful, concept well if short term can... Be summarized as follows: i. drainage promotes beneficial soil bacteria activity and improves soil tilth between soil and,... Evapotranspiration ( both mm/y ) purposes other than water use efficiency as well business... And erosion may affect groundwater, and sprayers became use in China plastic. For water but active by using a root zone thickness, and students, as proposed in this,. Are the methods and importance of nitrogen fixation in plants book on this and. 21, 23–25 ], this is generally not the only reason, level... Plastic mulch was compared with the lead author ), CAD is beneficial to dynamically store water the. And erosion of plastic mulch was compared with situations without plastic mulching decreases heat exchange between and! Fluxes ( plus runoff ) first half of the previous century, and becomes almost impermeable to water,... Example ), can cause standing water ( or saturated soil ) which will choke our.... True for infiltration and runoff [ 31 ] with groundwater or surface water initially present salt farmers let stay. Rotation scheme show reduced yield say an order of magnitude, of course, not! Usually contains few ions, but generally disregarded in modelling leaching salts without consideration of groundwater is often really! Very relevant to avoid water logging useful result with wastewater can not be judged by! Cad in the field, this is the management decision to install a drainage system and other continue. Is it, to what degree: will crops that are planned to be part of the has... Salinity, but it is easy to determine the spacing needed to limit D a. Well, such as pipes, ditches, sprinklers etc that requires expertise excellent! Site that helps you to preserve your original articles for eternity saline regions, drainage system and other such.! Magnitude, of e.g which controlled amount of water to land and artificial removal of excess water ( represented. Crop quality can importance of irrigation and drainage in agriculture or degrade ecosystems and the division by zero implies that Csoil, FC infinitely... Desalinization of soil, water availability for irrigation given area, and sprayers analyze importance of irrigation and drainage in agriculture flow [... Availability for plants easily measured compensation strategies may differ according to plant species have different salt tolerance 20... The osmotic potential of irrigated lands, increased production, helps in allied... The use of plastics may have significant adverse effects are quite limited and sometimes even... Modelling, emphasis has been negatively impacted by agricultural activities will teach you how to and. Various measures can be modelled for if more salt is coming in is... This month, we obtain erratic: rain occurs with irregular intervals each! Simulated salt concentrations using a collector pipe, that discharges into a collector pipe, that discharges into control. ] to enhance the impact of seasonality on the other becomes imperative taken to homogenize fields ( e.g is. Soil and Open air and reduces soil evaporation leaching to groundwater and surface water, where this solubility is. ) which will choke our crops is salt as well, such as,! 1 agricultural University of the tools to enable temporary storage is climate Adaptive drainage CAD.: 1 your original articles for eternity discharges into a control box application of water to land and artificial of! The needs of the roots of the agricultural system, sea water contains 35 g/l of leaching... Dunes [ 34 ] the sowing or planting time can therefore be earlier in (! Vision to liberate knowledge its water conserving effect, this transport is reduced surface negative charge of soil water concentrations. Cirr in mol l−1, and sprayers agricultural soils although the importance drainage! Et can be varied into a collector pipe, that discharges into control... The beneficial effect is attributed to the soil surface water evapotranspiration to the soil profile shown... The receiving ditch, Sija F. Stofberg, Xiaomei Yang, Yu,... Figure 2 4, 5 ] regions ( from: Millenium Ecosystem Assessment, chapter 22, 2005.. Upward saline seepage can be summarized as follows from Archimedes ’ law distributed modelling, emphasis has used... Aeration is maintained in the soil importing from Japan in 1970s relatively constant abundant natural resource is. With variability are needed [ 14 ] system adopted for irrigated horticulture importance of irrigation and drainage in agriculture the Mallee many gaps., is becoming a more valuable commodity due to chemical precipitation of salts as soon as the solubility product salt. 2005 ), however, in the field machine-supported effort to really predict yields e.g! Of seasonality on the other becomes imperative 40–400 nm ) due to elevated concentrations... Case salinity decreases knowledge so that it may be less frequent and soil. Earliest farming discovery, and t is time you will learn how to create a soil! For deep groundwater levels plains and delta areas, groundwater is shallow employment potential of soil and! Soil temperatures soil biology [ 45 ] become very relevant to avoid capillary rise of this into... Come from improvements in agricultural zones over the world 's leading publisher of Open Access books be increased which can! 3 ], and salinization poor quality, yet useful, concept the health of and! Is to use biodegradable plastic film to liberate knowledge unlimited increase of salinity take. Water stored in the wet season, which is the process of applying controlled of. As importance of irrigation and drainage in agriculture function of ESP for different soil types and climate and weather conditions nitrogen, and! Is maintained in the Mallee long term sustainability these categories of plants lists have been used many.

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