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Masonry units covered by most standards include those made from normal and lightweight concretes, calcium silicate, natural stone, and fired clay. This volumetric change in the unit results in an accumulated growth of the wall system that is irreversible. The information is presented in terms of the current Australian /New Zealand standard AS/NZS 4455, Masonry Units, Pavers, There are four main types of mortar, which are described below in order of decreasing strength. Split face units are governed by ASTM C90, which includes an allowance to account for the rough face. In summer months, the air space behind the brick veneer will typically contain air that is hot and humid relative to the interior. how do they differ from one another? Single molds compacted by hand gave way to ganged molds that travel on assembly lines in high-tech manufacturing facilities. The “no-slump” or “low-slump” material is placed into molds, vibrated and compacte… In some cases, noted below where applicable, additional provisions govern which are more applicable to the specific unit. Masonry provides a significant improvement in fire safety for building walls. Glazed units are available in a variety of vibrant colors, pastels, earth tones, and even faux granite and marble patterns. Water penetration can also occur, although typically to a lesser degree, due to absorption through the units and mortar. The fire resistive characteristics are based on the thickness of the masonry. Masonry can form structural elements (typically bearing walls, columns, or pilasters) and/or the finished cladding system. Critical components in masonry veneers exposed to moisture include: Veneer walls are designed as "drainage walls" in respect to their resistance to water penetration. MASONRY UNITS Masonry walls are built using various types of masonry units, solid or hollow, and mortar. New developments in masonry wall design include the use of pre-stressed masonry. The recommended cavity width behind the masonry veneer is 2 inches minimum. However, manufacturers may carry additional products not listed here, and conversely, not all products listed will be available in all locations. Because of these varying factors, there are typically some subtle variations in color among units. Types of Concrete Blocks or Concrete Masonry Units Used in Construction Home / Building Technology Guide / Building Materials Concrete block masonry which is also known as concrete masonry unit (CMU) have advantages over brick and stone masonry. Units categorized as solid typically contain cores for handling and to allow more uniform firing. 1090 Vermont Avenue, NW, Suite 700 | Washington, DC 20005-4950 | (202) 289-7800 These systems can be effective in reducing the amount of water penetration into the masonry; however, they should not be relied upon to eliminate water penetration. The units are categorized based on the weight (lightweight, normal weight and heavyweight). In the second case, where the rib projection is included in the overall unit thickness, the designer should be aware that the actual bearing area, section modulus, and moment of inertia are less than those published for non-ribbed units. The concrete masonry can be reinforced both vertically and horizontally to achieve the required flexural resistance. The units can also be oriented in various ways to form varying aesthetic effects. National Concrete Masonry Association, 1997. Other masonry unit types include cast stone and calcium silicate units. Functional / Operational—Ensure Appropriate Product/Systems Integration, See appropriate sections under applicable guide specifications: Unified Facility Guide Specifications (UFGS), VA Guide Specifications (UFGS), DRAFT Federal Guide for Green Construction Specifications, MasterSpec®, CMHC Best Practice Guide—Brick Veneer Concrete Masonry Unit Backing. These units are manufactured by mixing two different concrete colors into the same unit mold. Concrete block is made from Portland Cement, aggregates and water. Components and proportions of mortars vary depending on the desired mortar properties. Clay brick units are typically used in brick masonry construction. Note that varying bond patterns can impact how the wall responds to structural loads (see ref. Concrete masonry walls are typically reinforced with joint reinforcement for shrinkage control. Figure 2a shows units with 3 vertical scores in a standard sized ground face block. B. Your company can provide technical resources with your company logo and information. In this context the brick masonry is primarily decorative, not structural. The final unit color varies with the amount and type of pigment used, cement color, aggregate color, and the amount of water used in the mix (a wetter mix will generally produce lighter and brighter colors). The goal of 'Whole Building' Design is to create a successful high-performance building by applying an integrated design and team approach to the project during the planning and programming phases. For example, units with two and five scores can be placed in either stack bond or in a one-third running bond to align scores in adjacent courses. Concrete masonry units can be manufactured in different sizes and with a variety of face textures. The time frame for sealant replacement depends on the sealant used but usually ranges from every 7 to 20 years. In case of piers or pillars these blocks are widely used. 4), Standard Specification for Prefaced Concrete and Calcium Silicate Masonry Units, which contains minimum requirements for facing quality and dimensional tolerances. Types of hollow concrete block: Concrete stretcher block: They are much like concrete blocks used to assemble masonry units. Standard Specification for Loadbearing Concrete Masonry Units, ASTM C 90-00. Due to their relatively low cost as wall material and their fire resistance, CMU walls are laid on many types of projects. They are light weight blocks and easy to install. The appearance from a distance is very similar to that of a split face, while a closer inspection shows a surface that is not as well defined as that achieved with a conventional split face. 3. Has a higher proportion of cement and subsequently can have increased shrinkage of the mortar. Mortars can also be integrally colored to blend or contrast with the masonry units. Concrete masonry is typically used for firewall construction. All rights reserved. These flashings must be designed to be watertight, particularly at corners, laps, and terminations of the masonry. The ribs are molded into the unit using a special mold. (See Figure 3 for examples). CSE block 235 x 235 x 140 Solid plain Stretcher. It is critical that a moisture barrier be present on the interior face of the drainage cavity (on the surface of the backup) to prevent the passage of water into the backup construction. Which Type Of Masonry Structure Is The Best? In addition to forming the exterior cladding, masonry walls can serve as a portion of the structural framing for the building. This effect is accomplished by using a unit mold with the desired offsets. This is accomplished by omitting the mortar between the top course of masonry and the underside of the support. However, with ribbed units, it is difficult to properly tool the mortar due to the projections. This can be due to bond separations, voids, and cracks. Structural masonry walls are typically constructed using concrete masonry. In relation to its look, concrete stretcher blocks are comparatively similar with a normal hollow block, however their faces are parallel with respect to the wall face. In addition, the unit to which the facing is applied must comply with ASTM C90 when used in loadbearing applications. Units with an offset face produce a very highly textured wall, with strong patterns of light and shadow. Masonry is typically a large thermal mass that can be heated and cooled by it's exposure to the sun and the exterior temperatures. They can provide the structural frame of a building and they can also serve as a strong backup system for many types of veneer systems. There are different types of mortar with unique purposes. The type of unit depends on the required dimensional tolerances. Conventional concrete masonry units are manufactured using a “no-slump” concrete mix, which holds its shape when removed from the manufacturing mold. These metal flashings are durable, can be sealed, and include soldered corners and end dams. Masonry must be installed on a solid, rigid base. NCMA and the companies disseminating this technical information disclaim any and all responsibility and liability for the accuracy and the application of the information contained in this publication. Clay brick masonry should include solid (full) head and bed joints. The Types of Reinforced Masonry Walls Depending on which materials are used, and how they are located, reinforced masonry (RM) walls can be divided into the following classes: •confined masonry •reinforced cavity masonry •reinforced solid masonry •reinforced hollow unit masonry •reinforced grouted masonry •reinforced pocket type walls. what are the molding processes used in manufacturing bricks? There are different mortar types depending on the required strength. Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves. ASTM C90 prescribes minimum faceshell thickness requirements for all loadbearing concrete masonry units, but also contains a variance for split face units where up to 10% of a split faceshell can be less than the minimum specified thickness, but not less than ¾ (19 mm). Historically, units came from a variety of sources and included materials such as rock and stone, either natural or cut. Guidelines for expansion joint design/layout are provided in Brick Industry Association (BIA) Tech Note 18A. The units have the appearance of polished natural stone. The most common masonry types and uses in new construction are as follows: Mortar proportions and mixing requirements are outlined in ASTM C270 and in the appropriate Technical Notes published by the Brick Institute of America (BIA). Several different types of masonry units are commonly used. Professionals do masonry projects and the unit works for a variety of purposes. Type N or S mortar should be used in other cases. Walls utilizing a variety of split face units are shown in Figure 1. Repointing of the mortar joints in exterior masonry is typically required between 20 to 30 years after installation, depending on the type and quality of the original masonry installation. In addition, because of its modular nature, different concrete masonry units can be combined within the same wall to achieve variations in texture, pattern, and color. A soft split unit is produced using a special mold which textures the face of the unit as it is removed from the mold. (203 x 406 mm), as shown in Figure 2a. Standard Specification for Prefaced Concrete and Calcium Silicate Masonry Units, ASTM C 744-99. This 10% limit does not apply, however, in. Because coarse aggregate is also fractured and exposed in this process, aggregate selection can alter the final appearance. However, the admixture must also be mixed into the mortar in order to achieve proper bond. Other appropriate bond patterns are included in Table 1. This has good bond qualities and good resistance to water penetration. In addition, aggregate is not fractured in a soft split as it is in a conventional split face unit. A masonry veneer wall consists of masonry units, usually clay-based bricks, installed on one or both sides of a structurally independent wall usually constructed of wood or masonry. The support system must be designed for small deflections (typically 1/600th of the span) to avoid cracking of the masonry. The masonry is typically assumed to provide little insulating value. These movements, if not accommodated in the design of the masonry elements, can cause cracking, spalling, and displacements in the masonry. Since these units are typically larger than brick units, the construction time required for laying the units is typically less than that for brick. These changes have also led to excellent quality control and uniformity of units. Concrete Masonry Shapes & Sizes Manual, CM 260A. Masonry veneer consists of an exterior wythe of masonry that forms a cladding material only. ), Lateral tie system to anchor veneer to the structural back-up, Vertical support system to support weight of veneer, Provisions for expansion/contraction of the wall system, National Concrete Masonry Association—NCMA "Tek" Notes. The service life of the masonry can be 100 years or more, depending on the detailing and maintenance. Depending on the clay used and the method of forming the units during manufacturing, clay units have various colors, sizes and textures. 3). 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