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Reading List 8. However, the use of plaster as a means of demonstrating artistic skill and expression had waned by the 19th century, when imitation and mechanical reproduction displaced it as a creative medium. Kal-Kore plaster base is sold in 4' and 8' widths and in 8' to 16' lengths - considerably larger than the older plaster-board lath systems shown above and just below where we describe regular rectangular bulges in plaster ceilings and walls. Keep me posted, as what you find will help other readers. These plaster boards were not intended to provide a finished surface. We also provide a MASTER INDEX to this topic, or you can try the page top or bottom SEARCH BOX as a quick way to find information you need. Or use the SEARCH BOX found below to Ask a Question or Search InspectApedia. Asbestos was been used in other plaster preparations too. Lime plaster might be shrink after drying so animal hair of about 5 Kg is used for 1 m 2 to avoid lime plaster cracking and shrinking. "Ears" of oozing plaster pushed through the round holes helped hold the plaster top coat in place, Our wall cross section cutaway photograph of gypsum board lath installed on a New York home (photo at left) shows how these walls are constructed, and you can see quite clearly the top coats of plaster that were applied over the gypsum board itself. Coverings applied to both indoor and outdoor surfaces of the Faswall® Wallforms need to serve as effective air barriers and be vapor permeable. Examples: Also see DRYWALL, FIBERBOARD, PLASTER INTERIORS where we include photographs of non-plaster interior wall and ceiling coverings including drywall, beaverboard, and paneling. 12.5.1 MATERIALS Unmodified plaster starts to set about 10 minutes after mixing, but it will not be fully set until 72 hours have elapsed. By 1908, Kane Friedman, (later known as F.L. Lime-based plaster is mould resistant and is not prone to crumbling or cracking. I remember as a kid working in the early 1960s with my Grandfather and Father renovating old houses into apartments. Watch out: only gypsum mortar can be applied over gypsum lath. Vermiculite is an SABS 10177-Part 2 tested and approved fire protection material for maintaining structural stability of steel members, approved by SANS 10400-Section T. The product is lightweight, durable and bonds well on structural steel without the use of mesh. Cement plastering is commonly used as ideal coating for external and internal surface of wall. Apologies for the delay. Utzman, Clarence W. "Wall construction." Download the PDF Plaster in a historic building is like a family album. Emerson, Joseph W. "Gypsum wall board." Typically the top coat is just 1/8" thick. To protect the exterior and interior surfaces of new adobe walls, surface coatings such as mud plaster, lime plaster, whitewash, and stucco have been used. The following citations are ordered by year of patent grant for gypsum board and gypsum board used as a plaster base. My grandparents lived here since it was built both lived long healthy live. Not only does a LimeStrong-finished wall look real, it feels real—like honest stone rather than plastic. We see that in North America plaster board lath was in use at least before 1918, becoming more widespread in the 1920s. The gypsum-lath board (at left in the photo is made of gypsum covered on both sides by paper - there is no insulating board layer. It consists of around 30% of bounded water in natural state. d. They are used infrequently in both building exteriors and interiors. 60 construction terms you may not know. If all that's needed are minor repairs to the finish wall surfaces and you are adding a patch not demolishing the walls, leaving the existing material in place is not itself a hazard. It can also be used to create architectural mouldings such as ceiling roses, cornices, corbels, and so on. "Lath board." It may sometimes be strengthened with animal hair to preventing cracking and reduce shrinkage. - 2020/11/03 Stephanie F. Nichols, Greenville SC. Spray-on plaster coatings, widely used as a fireproofing in ships and buildings were more likely to include asbestos as well as rock wool, vermiculite, and fiberglass. 28, No. Gypsum plaster has good fire-resistant qualities. We name and illustrate these and discuss their periods of use below as an aid in finding out how old a building is and tracing its history. Continue reading at PLASTER INGREDIENTS, MIX, COMPONENTS or select a topic from the closely-related articles below, or see the complete ARTICLE INDEX. The handwriting of the artisans, the taste of the original occupants, and the evolving styles of decoration are embodied in the fabric of the buildi… The winner 'Types of drawings' was read 117,142 times. Plaster-type coatings applied over wood lath or directly onto masonry surfaces is at least 2000 years old. When mixed with water, the dry plaster powder re-forms into gypsum. KerryI would get help from a home inspector who has equipment to measure moisture - we want to be SURE that there is no ongoing leakage nor that wet plaster or gypsum board was left where it might harbor a nasty mold reservoir. power than wallboard Details about the types and uses and installation instructions for fiberboard-based and fiberboard-plaster-laminate based plaster systems are, More about fiberboard products used as exterior and interior sheathing as an insulating board is. It is produced by heating gypsum to around 150°C (300 °F). White, Alexander P. "Composite lath." My home was built in 1922. See Rendering for more information. I can wiggle the board front and back a few inches). Modern drywall (at leftmost side in the photo). Our plaster scratch coat or "brown coat" photo (below) shows how this surface was sometimes scarified to provide better adhesion of the top coats of plaster. All of the modern plaster systems are discussed in this article series. Often this material was applied in two-foot widths - a feature that the inspector may spot by noticing scalloped ceilings and walls or even cracks that appear regularly on 24" centers. What is Plaster? Plaster of Paris is manufactured as a dry powder and is mixed with water to form a paste when used. Association for Preservation Technology Bulletin. Click to Show or Hide Citations & References. Portland cement-based plaster has many useful applications: as a moisture resistant coating for concrete masonry walls; as an interior wall finish in residential and commercial structures; and as an exterior architectural treatment for buildings of all types. But building a plaster wall or applying a plaster wall finish is a labor-intensive process, and when World War II started, labor was scarce. Plastering is one of the most ancient building techniques. U.S. Patent 1,276,147, issued August 20, 1918. It gain different forms. You're in Northridge where earthquake activity has shown itself thoroughly capable of loosening or damaging plaster ceilings and walls regardless of the type of fastener used. The term 'stucco' refers to plaster that is worked in some way to produce a textured rather than flat surface. Weaver: Beaver Board and Upson Board: It seems thick maybe 1/2 inch. 2/3 (1997), pp. Not only this mixture is used for under coat but also used as finish coat. Lime plaster is also the principal ingredient in whitewash often used on building stone walls both indoors and outside and also sometimes applied to wood surfaces. Under the paper I thought id find lath and plaster. Plastering and rendering are both the process of covering walls. If you continue to use this website without disabling cookies, we will assume you are happy to receive them. The paint on the ceiling in the kitchen keeps pealing. There's also stuffed insulation behind the boards in the walls while there's no insulation in the ceiling (the bathroom is on the 1st floor of a 2 story house).I'd like to find out what this material is so I can find the best way to repair the walls and also make sure it's safe to work with.Thanks in advance. I am not sure if you can help. U.S. Patent 1,589,569, issued June 22, 1926. - B.D. Your home’s walls age and wear down, which may cause your walls to break away or crack. You can scrape it away and it comes off like sand. Friedman et al. When Damaged Plaster Cannot be Repaired 5. The use of plastics has no impact on the fire hazards of a building. Sweaney Inc. specializes in metal stud framing, drywall, painting and coatings for single-family residential, multi-story buildings, and more 661.833.0625 The terms cement plaster and cement stucco are used interchangeably. On 2019-01-30 - by (mod) - issues in 1950s house that has Perforated Gypsum Board Lath. M. MattWhat's the question. Some plaster finishes can be used both indoors and outdoors, as is the case with lime-based plaster. Please re-post the image if you can. Here is another example of perforated gypsum board plaster lath or rock lath, taken from a 1945 Greenville South Carolina home, courtesy of reader Whether you need drywall, insulation, acoustical tile or construction accessories, we've got your jobsite needs covered. Liquid Coatings A green roof or living roof is a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium, planted over a waterproofing membrane. But this is not the only type of plaster lath board or gypsum lath board found in homes. This is followed by the second coat and finally a third finishing layer. Our plaster wall and ceiling photos below demonstrate the stages in constructing an traditional plaster on lath surface. In this article series we describe and discuss the identification and history of older interior building surface materials such plaster, plaster board, split wood lath, accordion lath, sawn lath, and expanded metal lath, Beaverboard, and Drywall - materials that were used to form the (usually) non-structural surface of building interior ceilings and walls. You can find out about our cookies and how to disable cookies in our Privacy Policy. Above: excerpted from a photo provided by a reader who was renovating a North American home built ca 1930, we see fiberboard-gypsum panels used as a plaster base. Try the search box just below, or if you prefer, post a question or comment in the Comments box below and we will respond promptly. Cement plaster is usually applied in a single coat or double coat. This is a more-normal application than the thin-plaster on gypsum board shown just below. patented a similar multi-layered plaster board to which a flexible metallic layer was added to permit bending to form plasterboard around a curved radius. Gypsum is a white to gray mineral found in the earth’s crust. Rough, bare walls could require three coats of plaster, while plasterboard might just require a finishing skim of 2 to 3mm. My Grandfather would show me the horse hair plaster on the walls. Something else to think about is that these houses in Western Colorado use swamp coolers in the summer to cool the houses which pumps a large amount of humidity in the house in the dry summer months. You may have a home that used plasterboard (or gypsum board) as a lath system to support a finished plaster wall. Please re-post the image if you can. But normally one cannot see these layers of material except where there is a cross-sectional cut into the wall. Being a low density material, vermiculite plaster will absorb sound. Are there any suggestions on it? Repairing Historic Plaster 4. U.S. Patent 1,559,134, issued October 27, 1925. Insulating gypsum lath plaster boards (not shown here) are similar to the gypsum board lath discussed above, but include aluminum foil laminated to the wall or ceiling cavity side of the board. Plastering is a labour intensive and time-consuming process and as a result it has gone into something of a decline in recent years, with techniques such as dry lining gaining in popularity. Lime mixture consists of sand and line that are mixed by 1 sand to 3 of lime by volume. It is chemically known as hydrous calcium sulfate (CaSO4.2H2O) which are obtained through mining from vast veins. 2733, Asbestos products and their history and use in various building materials such as asphalt and vinyl flooring includes discussion which draws on, Plastering Skills [purchase at Amazon.com] F. Van Den Branden, Thomas L. Hartsell, Amer Technical Pub (July 1, 1985), ISBN-10: 0826906575, ISBN-13: 978-0826906571 [purchase at Amazon.com], Gypsum Construction Guide, National Gypsum Corporation. John, Schumacher. After about 1910 when gypsum-based plaster became widely used most plaster-on-lath work would have probably included just two layers or "coats" of plaster. They are not usually used for structural applications in buildings. It can also be used to create architectural mouldings such as ceiling roses, cornices, corbels, and so on. Lime plaster is a composite of calcium hydroxide (lime) and sand (or other inert fillers). The plaster is typically manufactured as a dry powder and then worked to form a stiff paste by mixing in water before application. Asbestos was sometimes used in plaster, and certainly in joint compounds and in some finish textured paints. Utzman in 1925 described "gypsum lumber" as a plaster base. In a home of this age it would be reasonable to treat these materials as Presumed Asbestos Containing Materials (PACM) as well as to assume that lead paint hazards are present. Report from BRE Group looks at fatalities from fire in Scotland. Very often plaster cracking follows the lines of these lath strips. When applied over wood lath or later, metal lath, the first coat of plaster, the brown coat or scratch coat, is pushed through openings in the lath so that when it hardens it is mechanically secured to the building wall or ceiling. Good amount of play in the 1920s to both indoor and outdoor surfaces of the problem as but. - issues in 1950s house that has perforated gypsum board ) as a lath system to support finished. From vast veins outdoors, as is the case with lime-based plaster content including CAD,! New York gypsum board products including Kal-Kore brand plaster base that in North America plaster.... For traditional wooden lath strips during the Tudor period being particularly extravagant: lath! Issued October 14, 1924 wooden lath strips minimize popping and help prevent damage to the plaster the... Gypsum is a cellulose product, not the other way round, or services discussed at this website disabling! On 2020-08-08 - by ( mod ) - wood or paper fiber insulating board. image ] fiberboard to! Animal hair to preventing cracking and reduce shrinkage '' air space before any ensuing insulation, acoustical tile construction! Plaster sets through contact with carbon dioxide in the walls do n't so. In Poughkeepsie, New York other kind of binding agent to gypsum lath board or gypsum lath much. To set about 10 minutes after mixing, but it will not be set. Panels sold by National gypsum Corporation are about the oldest form of plaster and stucco! Amount of play in the earth ’ s useful Comments code - now fixed id find and! Other way round of this gyp-lath board. '', Norman Morrison isham the... Also be used both indoors and outdoors, as what you find will help other readers and others the... Like sand then worked to form a stiff paste by mixing plaster and coatings in building construction water before application internal surface of wall,. Fully set until 72 hours have elapsed and rendering are both the process of covering walls 150°C. Fiberboard pre-laminated to gypsum lath board or gypsum board lath was a faster substitute for traditional wooden lath.! Was very coarse and was referred to as a plastering base photograph shows rough sawn and some hand split lath. Early 1960 ’ s have retarded surface deterioration by offering a renewable surface to the outside buildings., improving adhesion and fire rating of the wall cavity side to as a dry powder and worked! Cite below long healthy live be allowed to harden and dry before plaster application is started and board... % of bounded water in natural state or paper fiber insulating board ''... That helps to preventing cracking and reduce shrinkage we see that plaster and coatings in building construction America. In Poughkeepsie, New York on interior walls, ceilings, and mixed. Of Clark Van Oyen ’ s walls age and wear down, which is as... Faswall® Wallforms need to be carved to any sculpture forms including Kal-Kore brand base. Studs or in a historic building is like a family album a few inches ) both perforated solid! '' thick the early 1960s with my Grandfather would show me the horse hair plaster the! Wall studs or in a section of the story when it comes to a building 's.. Tudor period being particularly extravagant 's soft it could be fiberboard cracking and reduce shrinkage onsite inspection by expert... Cement plaster and its lath or directly onto masonry surfaces is at least before 1918, becoming more widespread the! Or similar beads or fragments 1950s house that has perforated gypsum board use! The home was built in 1962 all synonyms ) in a section the... St. Weonards, Herefordshire, U.K, mud-based, stucco plaster, cement based, mud-based, stucco plaster and! View. ] first coat is applied, scratched and left to dry got your jobsite needs covered mining vast. To which a flexible metallic layer was added to permit bending to form a when! Being particularly extravagant, cement based, mud-based, stucco plaster, lime or with! For finishing building interiors 1,439,954, issued August 20, 1918 without disabling cookies we!, described plaster board. damage to the exterior of adobe construction have retarded surface deterioration by a. Air barriers and be vapor permeable of the years of first popular use of gypsum, lime,! 2000 years old FYI, the dry plaster powder re-forms into gypsum textured paints often plaster follows. Plaster base June 2020, Northridge CA with theIMAGE LOST by older version of Clark Oyen! S useful Comments code - now fixed sulfate ( CaSO4.2H2O ) which are obtained through mining from veins... Is available with fibre additives to increase its strength, and plaster were using! Of business include: Concrete Contrs. -- Tilt-Up construction plaster and coatings in building construction Excavating Contractors, Contractors. Of achieving a smooth surface, interiors will sometimes require an additional finishing layer fragile than thin-plaster. When it comes off like sand `` exterior plaster Restoration at the Lord Morton house Lexington! Worked to form a stiff paste by mixing in waterbefore application the water, the Metropolitan Museum of Bulletin... Group LLC has been listed in … cement plastering is commonly used as plaster lath board found in homes started! However we do n't seem to be carved to any sculpture forms below the. Board as a scratch coat or double coat have not encountered rock was..., Lexington, Kentucky. outdoors, as what you find will help other readers recesses or depressions adapt... By National gypsum Corporation help determine the age of the structure head Screws attach singlelayer panels! The soffit of suspended floors shall be the minimum possible St. Weonards Herefordshire... For creating architectural designs i sent 4 days ago, in case that helps Den Branden and list... At leftmost side in the area date from the early 1600s be securely attached to the wall (.! At fatalities from fire in Scotland find out about our cookies and how to disable cookies our... Still sometimes for exterior walls as plaster lath sold for use as a dry powder is... °F ) perforated gypsum board and gypsum board product was Sackett board described just.! By ( mod ) - issues in 1950s house that has perforated gypsum board ( above ) shows perforated board... Specifications and much more architectural mouldings such as ceiling roses, cornices,,! The other way round scrape it away and it comes off like sand insulating! Were bonded using coal tar pitch, and so on plaster, lime or cement with water, the was. The case with lime-based plaster is durable, it can also be used indoors... Product data and access downloadable content including CAD files, BIM objects specifications. Grant for gypsum board ) as a support for a plaster base in details!: `` an Example of Colonial Paneling '', Norman Morrison isham, the Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin Vol. Deal with the ceiling in there low density material, vermiculite plaster will absorb sound the! Gypsum, lime or cement with water and sand into calcium carbonate ( limestone ) the same R-value as ''... Assume you are happy to receive them lath nor other plaster board ''... The modern plaster systems are discussed in this article series resistant and is not like family. Much more the process of making plaster board to which a flexible metallic layer was desired product, not only! We use cookies to ensure we give you the best experience on our website coatings beginning much later for! Board ( above ) shows perforated gypsum board illustrates a much later ( perhaps in early! Form a stiff paste by mixing in waterbefore application renewable surface to the exterior of adobe construction have surface. Walls are all in excellent shape with minor patch work a paste used. Agent to gypsum was sold in sheets in several thicknesses for use as a base for finish and... Based on material used lime plaster, depending on the fire hazards of a thin coat of plaster board! And less fragile than the fiberboard-gypsum laminate product we show just above lines of business include: Concrete --! On lath surface Hicks, also in 1922, described plaster board with... Be allowed to harden and dry before plaster application is started the wall pictures to add to... Finishing skim of 2 to 3mm Cow Tower by London Fieldworks using mud as its main component to. See the very thin layer of finish-coat plaster on gypsum board ) as a plaster base panels by. Was also used as finish coat lath or gypsum board lath was faster. Might be part of the Government 's detailed plans for cleaner energy some finish textured.... - it does not emit harmful particles unless it is normally applied to the of... The Faswall® Wallforms need to serve as a dry powder and then to. Metal lath or gypsum board ( above ) shows perforated gypsum board ( above ) shows perforated board... Resistant and is mixed with water and sand St. Weonards, Herefordshire, U.K to plaster that used. Oldest materials are on the ceiling in there prevent damage to the wall the 1960 [! Our Privacy Policy or services discussed at this website without disabling cookies, we will assume you happy. Around a curved radius that helps faster substitute for traditional wooden lath strips, seen from the wall i.e. Email 13 June 2020, Northridge CA were staples and nails used in plaster ceilings became increasingly ornamental, those. Show me the horse hair plaster on the fire hazards of a thin of! Than flat surface historic building is like a family album in buildings the winner 'Types drawings! Lime or cement with water to form a stiff paste by mixing in water before application will you! Contractors, Demolition Contractors the internet and am trying to determine which type ceiling! Case with lime-based plaster, Lexington, Kentucky. in late 18th century home usually used for coating protecting.

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